Vector2
Function reference for c-vector2 calculate

This is the documentation for the `c-vector2` command. If you mean to read the information on `c-vector3`, go here.
The term vector in this document will describe a 2D vector.

# 2D vectors

A 2D vector is a representation of a point in two-dimensional space. You can express vectors in CalcBot with 2 or 4 components, which collectively express the magnitude and direction of the vector.

# General

## c-v2 c <expression>

Shorthand syntax for `c-vector2 calculate`.
> c-v2 c i + j
(1, 1)

## c-v2 m [r | d]

Shorthand syntax for switching trigonometric modes. `c-vector2` and `c-vector3` both share the same trigonometric mode.
> c-v2 m r
Set vector mode to radians
> c-v2 m d
Set vector mode to degrees

# Operators

All operators from `c-calculate` are available for use in `c-vector2 calculate`:

## not n

Negates `n`. If `n` is a truthy value, false (0) is returned. Otherwise, true (1) is returned.
> c-v2 c not true
0
> c-v2 c not false is true
1

## n!

Take the factorial of `n`. If `n` is a vector, this operation will throw an error.
> c-v2 c 6!
720
> c-v2 c (1, 2)!
Cannot take factorials of vectors.

## a ^ b

Raise `a` to the power of `b`. If `b` is a vector, this operation will immediately throw an error. If `a` is a vector, but `b` is not an integer, this operation will also immediately throw an error. This operation will not return a complex number in any situation, unlike in `c-calculate`.
> c-c 2 ^ 3
8
> c-v2 c (3i + j) ^ 3
(30, 10)
> c-v2 c -4 ^ (1/2)
NaN
> c-v2 c (3i + j) ^ (1/2)
Vectors cannot be raised to decimal powers.
> c-v2 c 2 ^ j
Vectors cannot be on the right side of the '^' operator.

## a * b

Multiply `a` and `b`. When operating on two vectors, this operator returns the dot product of the two vectors.
> c-v2 c 2 * 4
8
> c-v2 c (1, 2) * (5, 4, 1, 2)
-8

## a / b

Divide `a` by `b`. If `b` is a vector, this operation will immediately throw an error.
> c-v2 c 15 / 5
3
> c-v2 c (1, 2) / 2
(0.5, 1)
> c-v2 c (1, 2) / (5, 4, 1, 2)
Vectors cannot be on the right side of the '/' operator.

## a % b

Divide `a` by `b` and return the remainder of the result. This is also known as modulus division, or remainder division. If either `a` or `b` is a vector, this operation will immediately throw an error.
> c-v2 c 8 % 2
0
> c-v2 c (1, 2) % 2
Vectors cannot be used with the '%' operator.

## a + b

Add `a` and `b`.
> c-v2 c 1 + 1
2
> c-v2 c (3, 4) + 2
(3, 4) + 2
> c-v2 c (3, 4) + (1, 2)
(4, 6)

## a - b

Subtract `b` from `a`.
> c-v2 c 1 - 1
0
> c-v2 c (3, 4) - 2
(3, 4) - 2
> c-v2 c (3, 4) - (1, 2)
(2, 2)

## a is b

Returns true (1) if `a` is equal to `b`.
> c-v2 c 3 is 1 + 2
1
> c-v2 c (1, 1) is (2 - 1, 1)
1

## a nis b

Returns true (1) if `a` is not equal to `b`.
> c-v2 c 3 nis 1 + 2
0
> c-v2 c (3, 1) nis (2, 1)
1

## a ais b

Returns true (1) if `a` is approximately equal to `b`. The difference between them must be less than `1 * 10 ^ -6`. For vectors, this operator will compare the x and y components separately.
This operator is intended to be used when comparing the results of certain mathematical operations that produce slightly imprecise results (like prime notation).
> c-v2 c 3.0000002 ais 3
1
> c-v2 c (3, 2) ais (2.9999999, 2)
1

## a anis b

Negates the behavior of the `ais` operator.
> c-v2 c 3 anis 3
0
> c-v2 c (5, 2) anis (1, 0)
1

## a > b

Returns true (1) if `a` is greater than `b`.
> c-v2 c 3 > 2
1

## a < b

Returns true (1) if `a` is less than `b`.
> c-v2 c 3 < 2
0

## a >= b

Returns true (1) if `a` is greater than or equal to `b`.
> c-v2 c 3 >= 2
1
> c-v2 c 4 >= 4
1

## a <= b

Returns true (1) if `a` is less than or equal to `b`.
> c-v2 c 3 <= 2
0
> c-v2 c 4 <= 4
1

## a and b

Returns true if both `a` and `b` are truthy values.
> c-v2 c 3 and 4
1
> c-v2 c 3 and 0
0

## a or b

Returns true if either `a` or `b` are truthy values.
> c-v2 c 3 or 4
1
> c-v2 c 3 or 0
1
> c-v2 c 0 or 0
0

# Vector literals

## (a, b)

Syntax for a two-dimensional two-component vector.
> c-v2 c (1, 2)
(1, 2)

## (a, b, c, d)

Syntax for a two-dimensional four-component vector. Vectors of this kind are implicitly converted to their component form when used with other operations during evaluation.
> c-v2 c (1, 2, 5, 3)
(1, 2, 5, 3)

# Vector constants

These constants will always be available everywhere in all of `c-vector2`'s children commands.
• `i` = (1, 0)
• `j` = (0, 1)
• `zero` = (0, 0)

# Modified Calculate functions

All `c-calculate` functions as described here are available to use in `c-vector calculate`, and most of them will behave the same. Some functions have been modified for use with `c-vector calculate`, however:

## Trigonometric functions

All trigonometric functions will not operate with vector arguments.

## sqrt(n)

This function will not return a complex number in any situation, unlike in `c-calculate`.
> c-v2 c sqrt(4)
2
> c-v2 c sqrt(-4)
NaN

## abs(n)

This function will behave as expected. If `n` is a vector, this function will return the vector with the absolute value of each of its components (equivalent to `(abs(x(n)), abs(y(n)))`).
> c-v2 c abs(-4)
4
> c-v2 c abs((-2, -pi))
(2, 3.141592653589793)

## pow(n, p)

If `p` is a vector, this function will immediately throw an error. If `n` is a vector, but `p` is not an integer, this function will also immediately throw an error. Otherwise, this function behaves as expected, except that it will not return a complex number in any situation, unlike in `c-calculate`. This function is implicitly called when using the alternative syntax: `n ^ p`.
> c-v2 c pow(2, 4)
16
> c-v2 c pow(3i + j, 3)
(30, 10)
> c-v2 c pow(3i + j, 1/2)
Vectors cannot be raised to decimal powers.
> c-v2 c pow(2, j)
Vectors cannot be on the right side of the '^' operator.

# Functions that return a number

Most of the functions below available in `c-vector calculate` are also exposed as children commands of `c-vector`.

## x(v)

Returns the `x` component of vector `v`.
> c-v2 c x(2i + j)
2

## y(v)

Returns the `y` component of vector `v`.
> c-v2 c y(2i + j)
1

## comp(v)

Returns the component of vector `v`.
> c-v2 c comp((2, 2, 3, 3))
(1, 1)

Returns the quadrant that vector `v`'s component's head lies in. If the head is on the x-axis, 5 is returned. If the head is on the y-axis, 6 is returned.
> c-v2 c quad(2i + j)
1
> c-v2 c quad(j)
6

## dir(v)

Returns the direction angle of vector `v`, where the unit vector `i` (1, 0) is 0 degrees. For example, unit vector `j` (0, 1)'s direction angle is 90 degrees.
> c-v2 c dir(2i + j)
26.56505117707799

## mag(v)

Returns the magnitude of vector `v`.
> c-v2 c mag(2i + j)
2.23606797749979

## sqrmag(v)

Returns the squared magnitude of vector `v`. If you need to compare the magnitudes of two vectors, it will usually be more efficient to compare their squared magnitudes.
> c-v2 c sqrmag(2i + j)
5

## angle(v1, v2)

Returns the smallest angle between vectors `v1` and `v2`. The returned value will always be between 0 and 180 degrees.
> c-v2 c angle(2i + j, -4i + 6j)
97.12501634890181

## dot(v1, v2)

Returns the dot product of vectors `v1` and `v2`.
> c-v2 c dot(2i + j, -4i + 6j)
-2

## dist(v1, v2)

Returns the distance between the heads of vectors `v1` and `v2`.
> c-v2 c dist(2i + j, -4i + 6j)
7.810249675906654

# Functions that return a vector

## polar(m, a)

Returns a vector given its magnitude (`m`) and direction angle (`a`). This is equivalent to a vector defined as `(m * cos(a), m * sin(a))`.
> c-v2 c polar(2, 90)
(0, 2)

## unit(v)

Returns the unit vector of vector `v`, that is, the vector with the same direction angle as `v` but with a magnitude of 1.
> c-v2 c unit(2i + j)
(0.8944271909999159, 0.4472135954999579)

## lerp(v1, v2, t)

Returns a new vector linearly interpolated from vector `v1` to `v2` by a constant `t`. For example, `lerp(2i+j, -4i+6j, 0.5)` returns the midpoint between vectors `2i+j` and `-4i+6j`.
> c-v2 c lerp(2i + j, -4i + 6j, 0.5)
(-1, 3.5)

## mid(v1, v2)

Returns the midpoint between vectors `v1` and `v2`. This will always perform more quickly than `lerp(v1, v2, 0.5)`.
> c-v2 c mid(2i + j, -4i + 6j)
(-1, 3.5)
Outline
2D vectors
General
c-v2 c <expression>
c-v2 m [r | d]
Operators
not n
n!
a ^ b
a * b
a / b
a % b
a + b
a - b
a is b
a nis b
a ais b
a anis b
a > b
a < b
a >= b
a <= b
a and b
a or b
Vector literals
(a, b)
(a, b, c, d)
Vector constants
Modified Calculate functions
Trigonometric functions
sqrt(n)
abs(n)
pow(n, p)
Functions that return a number
x(v)
y(v)
comp(v)